BMe Research Grant
Figure 1 Multifunctional aircraft wing made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite. In addition to the reinforcing function, the carbon fiber can also be used for de-icing
In a specific arrangement, the carbon fiber composite is suitable for electrical shielding , energy storage , actuation , and as a sensor for structural state monitoring . Structural materials that sense their own environment are the first step towards intelligent materials, for which there is a growing demand in the world of Industry 4.0 and autonomous vehicles. I compiled an article on the multifunctional use of carbon fibers and the possible secondary functions, where I systematized the application examples by the raw materials and auxiliaries they require, and I introduced a new schematic notation system [FN1].
Figure 2 Measurement arrangement for three-point cyclic fatigue test
b c d
Figure 3 Schematic diagram of four-wire resistance measurement (a), representation of current density vectors in the FEM software (b), longitudinal distribution of current density based on FEM simulation (c), and “current suction” effect of copper mounts used for voltage measurement (d)
Figure 4 Effect of temperature on the resistance of a reinforcing carbon fiber bundle used as a sensor. The temperature coefficient of the carbon fiber bundle is negative [FN5]
According to my results, with increasing temperature and humidity, the resistance of the carbon fiber decreases, where the effect of temperature is an order of magnitude greater than that of humidity. Therefore, the carbon fiber bundle may be suitable for indicating a change in temperature, on one hand, e.g. the crosslinking of the resin during production or a thermal fatigue can be examined by measuring the resistance of the carbon fibers. On the other hand, when considering strain gauge sensor applications, the effect of temperature must be compensated [FN5].
To research the effect of the test current used in the resistance measurement on the dynamic mechanical properties of the composite specimen, I performed three-point impact bending tests on a specimen with different test currents. The power was connected to the specimen before the impact, and after the impact it was turned off immediately. I also changed the switching time before the shock. From the results, I concluded that the dynamic mechanical properties of specimens decrease under the influence of high current. With the measurement results, I applied for the SEIA2020 conference to be held in Porto, 2020 [FN6].
[FN1] Forintos N., Czigany T.: Multifunctional application of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites: electrical properties of the reinforcing carbon fibers – a short review. Composites Part B - Engineering, 162, 331–343 (2019). 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.10.098 IF=7.635 D1
[FN2] Forintos N., Czigány T.: Kompozitba épített elektromosan vezető érzékelő. Polimerek, 2, 196–199 (2016).
[FN3] Forintos N., Czigány T.: Üvegszál erősítésű kompozitok deformációjának mérése szénszálak segítségével. in 'OGÉT 2017: XXV. Nemzetközi Gépészeti Konferencia Cluj, Romania. 2017.04.27-2017.04.30.,147–150 (2017)
[FN4] Czigány T., Forintos N., Hegedűs G.: Health monitoring of high-performance polymer composites with multifunctional fibers. in 'ICCM21 Xi'an, China. 2017.08.20-2017.08.25., pp 3153/1–3153/8 (2017)
[FN5] Forintos N., Czigány T.: Reinforcing carbon fibers as sensors: the effect of temperature and humidity. Composites Part A – Applied Science and Manufacturing, 131, article ID: 105819 (2020). 10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105819 IF(2019)=6.444 D1
[FN6] Forintos N., Czigány T.: Multifunctional carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite structures: reinforcing and sensing. Sixth International Conference on Sensors and Electronic Instrumentation Advances (SEIA' 2020), Porto, Portugal, 23–25.09.2020 (2020).
 Reese J., Vorhof M., Hoffmann G., Böhme K., Cherif C.: Joule heating of dry textiles made of recycled carbon fibers and PA6 for the series production of thermoplastic composites. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 15 (2020) doi:10.1177/1558925020905828.
 Pan L., Liu Z., Kiziltas O., Zhong L., Pang X., Wang F., Zhu Y., Ma W., Lv. Y.: Carbon fiber/poly ether ether ketone composites modified with graphene for electro-thermal deicing applications. Composites Science and Technology, 192, article ID 108117 (2020).
 Aripin A.B., Yamamoto T., Nishi M., Hayakawa K.: Electromagnetic shielding property of laminated carbon fiber tape reinforced thermoplastics. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Materials, 59, pp 1308-1316 (2020).
 Moyer K., Meng C., Mashall B., Assal O., Eaves J., Perez D., Karkkainen R., Roberson L., Pint C.L.: Carbon fiber reinforced structural lithium-ion battery composite: Multifunctional power integration for CubeSats. Energy Storage Materials, 24, pp 676–681 (2020).
 Vermes B, Czigany T.: Non-conventional deformations: Materials and actuation. Materials, 13, paper ID: 1383 (2020) doi:10.3390/ma13061383.
 Luan C., Yao X., Shen H., Fu J.: Self-sensing of position-related loads in continuous carbon fibers-embedded 3D-printed polymer structures using electrical resistance measurement. Sensors;18, paper ID: 994 (2020). doi:10.3390/s18040994.